Scientific Publication

S.J. Mackenzie Ross et al (2017). Position Statement: Aviation and Aerospace Psychology: Pilot Mental Health and Wellbeing.  Commissioned by the British Psychological Society, Professional Practice Board (in press).

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2017). Could exposure to chemical substances be damaging your brain? The Psychologist (in press).

S.J. Mackenzie Ross et al (2017). A reply to Pigatto, Ronchi & Guzzi’s commentary. Cortex (in press) DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2017.04.024

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2017). Assessing cognitive function in airline pilots: The importance of neuropsychological assessment. In Pilot Mental Health Assessment and Support. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London & New York.  

V. Harrison and S.J. Mackenzie Ross (2016). Anxiety and depression following cumulative exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Environmental Research 151: 528-536.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2016). Day in the life of…..The Neuropsychologist 2 (August): 37-40.

S.J. Mackenzie Ross and V. Harrison (2016). Editorial. Special Issue on neurotoxicology. What’s your poison? Neurobehavioural consequences of exposure to industrial agricultural and environmental chemicals. Cortex 74:353-357.

V. Harrison and S.J. Mackenzie Ross (2016). An emerging concern: Toxic fumes in Airplane Cabins. Cortex 74:297-302.

S. J Mackenzie Ross (2016). Delayed psychiatric symptoms following methyl iodide and manganese poisoning: potential for misdiagnosis. Cortex 74:427-439.

S.J. Mackenzie Ross, C. McManus, V. Harrison, O. Mason (2015). Reflections on the process of using systematic review techniques to evaluate the literature regarding the neurotoxicity of low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Environment International: Virtual Special Issue on Systematic Review Methods for Advancing Chemical Risk Assessment 92-93 (July-August): 569-573 and available online doi:10.1016/j.envint.2015.10.009

Paul Whaley, Crispin Halsall, Sarah Mackenzie Ross et al (2015). Implementing systematic review techniques in chemical risk assessments: Challenges and opportunities. Environment International: Virtual Special Issue on Systematic Review Methods for Advancing Chemical Risk Assessment 92-93 (July-August): 556-5564 and available online.

S.J. Mackenzie Ross, C. McManus, V. Harrison, O. Mason (2012). Neurobehavioural problems following low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides: Highlights from a meta-analytic review of the literature (2014). Bulletin of the International Federation of Psychiatric Epidemiology, 12 (1): 4-12.

S.J. Mackenzie Ross, C. McManus, V. Harrison, O. Mason (2013). Neurobehavioural problems following low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A systematic & meta-analytic review. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 443 (1): 21-44.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross, V. Harrison , L. Madeley, K. Davis, K. M. Abraham-Smith, T. Hughes, O. Mason (2011).  Cognitive function following reported exposure to contaminated air on commercial aircraft: methodological considerations for future researchers. Journal of Biological Physics & Chemistry 11(4): 180-191.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross, C. R. Brewin, H. V. Curran , C. E. Furlong, K. M. Abraham-Smith, V. Harrison (2010). Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides. Neurotoxicology & Teratology, 32 (4): 452-459 S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2011). Neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to low levels of organophosphate pesticides. PhD Thesis held in UCL Library.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2008). Cognitive function following exposure to contaminated air on commercial aircraft. A case series of 27 airline pilots seen for clinical purposes. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine, 17 (2): 111-126.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross, C. R. Brewin, H. V. Curran , C. E. Furlong, K. M. Abraham-Smith, V. Harrison (2008). A case-controlled study of the neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides – Phase II of VM02302. Full report for the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Published and available to the general public on the DEFRA website randd.defra.gov.uk.

R. Harrison, J. Murawski, E McNeeley, J. Guerriero, D.Milton (with contribution from S.J. Mackenzie Ross) (2008). Exposure to aircraft bleed air contaminants among airline workers. A guide for health care providers. Report prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine, USA.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2007). Cognitive function following exposure to contaminated air on commercial aircraft. A report for the Science and Technology Committee, House of Lords, Inquiry into Air Travel and Health.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross, J. S. Clark , V. Harrison, K. M. Abraham (2007). Cognitive impairment following exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A pilot study.   Journal of Occupational Health & Safety: Australia & New Zealand 23 (2): 133-142

S. J. Mackenzie Ross, A. C. Harper, J. Burdon (2006). Ill health following reported exposure to contaminated air on commercial aircraft: psychosomatic disorder or neurological injury?   Journal of Occupational Health & Safety: Australia & New Zealand 22 (6): 521-528

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (2006). Cognitive function following exposure to contaminated air on commercial aircraft. A case series of 27 airline pilots seen for clinical purposes. A report for the UK Department of Transport and the UK Government Scientific Advisory Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer products and the Environment.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross, C. R. Brewin, H. V. Curran , C. E. Furlong, K. M. Abraham-Smith, V. Harrison (2006). A case-controlled study of the neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in sheep farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides – VM02126. Full report for the Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Published and available to the general public on the DEFRA website randd.defra.gov.uk.

Sarah Mackenzie Ross (2006). Cognitive deficits associated with long-term, low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides: A small group study. D.Psychol Thesis held in the University of Edinburgh Library.

B. Smith, S.J. Mackenzie Ross, P. Scragg (2005). Prevalence of poor psychological morbidity following a minor road traffic accident : a prospective longitudinal study.   Counselling Psychology Quarterly 20 (2): 149-155

S.J. Mackenzie Ross (2000) Profound retrograde amnesia following mild head injury: organic or functional ? Cortex 36, 521-537

S.J. Mackenzie Ross and A. Roth (1999). Do clinical psychology trainees make a major service contribution during training ?   Forum 131; 31-34

S.M. Robinson, S.J. Mackenzie Ross, G.L. Cambell Hewson, C.V. Egleston, A.T. Provost (1998). Psychological effect of witnessed resuscitation on bereaved relatives.   Lancet 352; 614-617

S.J. Mackenzie Ross and J.R. Hodges (1997). Preservation of famous person knowledge in a patient with severe post anoxic amnesia.   Cortex 33; 733-742

S.J. Mackenzie Ross, N. Graham, L. Stuart-Green, J. Xuereb, K. Patterson, J.R. Hodges (1996). Progressive biparietal atrophy: An atypical presentation of Alzheimers disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 61; 388-395

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (1994). Guidelines for the management of patients with acquired brain injury. A report for South Bedfordshire Community Health Care Trust.

S. J. Mackenzie Ross (1992). A neuropsychological investigation of a platinum-based chemotherapy protocol in testicular teratoma patients. MPhil thesis held in the University of Edinburgh Library.Sarah’s surname was formerly Langan

D.A. Hepburn, S.J.Langan, I.J. Deary, K.M. Mcleod, B.M. Frier (1994) Psychological and demographic correlates of glycaemic control in adult patients with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 11; 578-582

I.J. Deary, J. Crawford, D.A. Hepburn, S.J. Langan (1993). Severe hypoglycaemia causes cognitive impairment in adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetes 42;341-344

R.M. Temple , S.J. Langan, I.J. Deary, R.J. Winney (1992). Recombinant Erythropoietin (r-EPO) improves cognitive function in chronic haemodialysis patients.   Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 7; 240-245

I.J. Deary, S.J. Langan, K.S. Graham, D.A. Hepburn, B.M. Frier (1992) Recurrent severe hypoglycaemia, intelligence and speed of information-processing.   Intelligence 16; 337-359

S.J. Langan, I.J. Deary, D.A. Hepburn, B.M. Frier (1991) Cumulative cognitive impairment following recurrent severe hypoglycaemia in adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.   Diabetologia 34; 337-344

I.J. Deary, S.J. Langan, D.A. Hepburn, B.M. Frier (1991) Which abilities does PASAT test ? Personality and Individual Differences 12; 983-987

I.J. Deary, R. Hunter, S.J. Langan, G. Goodwin (1991) Inspection time, psychometric intelligence and clinical estimates of cognitive ability in presenile Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff Psychoses.   Brain 114; 2543-2554

S.J. Langan (1988). Psychological and Demographic correlates of glycaemic control in adult patients with Type 1 diabetes. MA (Hons) thesis held in the University of Edinburgh Library.



Neuropsychological and Psychiatric Functioning in Sheep Farmers Exposed to Low Levels of Organophosphate Pesticides

The study aim was to determine whether low level exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) causes neuropsychological or psychiatric impairment. Methodological weaknesses of earlier studies were addressed by: recruiting participants who had retired on ill health grounds; excluding participants with a history of acute poisoning, medical or psychiatric conditions that might account for ill health; and exploring factors which may render some individuals more vulnerable to the effects of OPs than others. Performance on tests of cognition and mood of 127 exposed sheep farmers (67 working, 60 retired) was compared with 78 unexposed controls (38 working, 40 retired) and published test norms derived from a cross section of several thousand adults in the general population. Over 40% of the exposed cohort reported clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression compared to less than 23% of controls. Exposed subjects performed significantly worse than controls and standardisation samples on tests of memory, response speed, fine motor control, mental flexibility and strategy making, even after controlling for the effects of mood. The pattern was similar for both working and retired groups. The cognitive deficits identified can not be attributed to mood disorder, malingering, a history of acute exposure or genetic vulnerability in terms of PON1 polymorphisms. Results suggest a relationship may exist between low level exposure to organophosphates and impaired neurobehavioural functioning and these findings have implications for working practice and for other occupational groups exposed to OPs such as Aviation Workers and Gulf War Veterans.

Cognitive function following reported exposure to contaminated air on commercial aircraft: Methodological considerations for future researchers

Cabin air on commercial aircraft is sometimes contaminated with jet engine oils containing organophosphates (OP). Aircrew have complained of chronic ill health and cognitive impairment following exposure to contaminated air, but a debate is ongoing about causation, diagnosis and treatment of long-term effects. The incidence of contaminated air events is difficult to quantify, as commercial aircraft do not have air quality monitoring systems on board. Certain types of aircraft record statistically more fume events than others (e.g. the BAe 146 and Boeing 757) and it has been suggested that airframe may serve as a proxy measure of exposure. The current study sought to investigate this claim, and to determine whether an association exists between exposure to contaminated air and neuropsychological impairment. Twenty-nine pilots were recruited and split into two exposure groups according to aircraft type flown, but few differences were noted between groups in terms of exposure history or cognitive function. Pilotsí profile of cognitive performance deviates from that seen in the normal population, but mirrors that seen in other OP exposed cohorts. In particular they show decrements in performance on tests of attention, psychomotor speed and visual sequencing. Given the safety implications of these findings, future research is warranted.